The Foreign Service Journal, January-February 2019
24 JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2019 | THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL agreements with host govern- ments for effective use of that aid and, very importantly, works to assure effective implementation of aid and reform programs. Economic diplomacy includes building international coalitions to help countries recover from financial crises. It entails convincing host- government leaders to apply the policies and measures most likely to strengthen their economies and provide jobs for their people, even if the reforms have political costs. In all these areas, the U.S. Foreign Service is at the forefront of crafting policy and carrying out economic diplomacy for the good of the United States. The Foreign Service, and our Civil Service colleagues in the foreign affairs agencies, work with partners at Treasury, Commerce, the Office of the U.S. Trade Represen- tative, Defense and other agencies to develop, implement and hone these approaches. In Washington, D.C., as well as over- seas, Foreign Service officers are essential players in creating strategies, in winning agreement from partners and building international coalitions, and in implementing policies and programs to achieve good outcomes in other countries and regions. The Foreign Service brings unparalleled international knowledge and experience to the table in Washington that regularly help focus, refine and implement U.S. policies. The United States has long practiced economic statecraft to open markets for U.S. goods and services and to boost global prosperity and stability, but over the last two decades increas- ing attention has been given to the added sway gained by using economic tools and diplomacy in a systematic, strategic way to support partners, to change or punish harmful behav- ior and to win support for U.S. international priorities. This is even more essential in a world where economic competition is increasingly fierce and not always fair, and where other gov- ernments may have much more influence in economic areas than they have in the military or other spheres. China’s grow- ing international clout and its aggressive economic diplomacy is one example that highlights the urgent need for effective, multipronged economic state- craft by the United States. In this issue of The Foreign Service Journal , you will find outstanding examples of U.S. For- eign Service officers carrying out economic diplomacy as part of America’s broader foreign policy. I have seen this work flourish firsthand in Mexico, Europe, Afghanistan and Argentina. The emblematic cases that follow, drawn frommy time as assistant secretary for the Bureau of Eco- nomic and Business Affairs (EB) from 2000 to 2006, illustrate the importance of Foreign Service networks and partnerships in Washington, D.C., and overseas. The Problem of Terrorist Financing On Sept. 11, 2001, I was traveling with Secretary of State Colin Powell in Lima, Peru, where, among other objectives, we were exploring with Peru’s president how the United States could use its economic tools to support that newly re-emerged democracy. This mission was disrupted by that day’s terrorist attacks. On the flight home and then with my colleagues in EB, we searched for ways the economic team at State could help define and build a strong international response to that attack. Previously several of us had worked to hone and strengthen the use of international economic sanctions as a tool of diplo- Economic statecraft and diplomacy are much broader than support for sales from U.S. farms and businesses overseas or support for the investments Americans make in other countries. COURTESYOFTONYWAYNE FSO Tony Wayne, at right, speaks with OECD Secretary General Angel Gurria about efforts to enhance the antibribery convention and other topics on the agenda at the May 2006 OECD ministerial meeting.