The Foreign Service Journal, July/August 2018

THE FOREIGN SERVICE JOURNAL | JULY-AUGUST 2018 9 learn, these were the work of Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaida network. In all, 224 people were killed, 213 of them in Nairobi. Twelve Americans were killed in the Nairobi bombing. Some 5,000 people were injured. In Dar, 11 Tanzani- ans were killed and 85 wounded. On the 20th anniversary of the bombings, we dedicate this issue of the Journal to the remembrance, reflection and resilience of the survivors from the embassy communities in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam—American, Kenyan and Tanzanian. In a collection of essays, 40 survivors share their experiences of that terrible day and of how they carried on and rebuilt their lives afterward. One thing is clear: No one who sur- vived is untouched by the event today, 20 years later. The experience of Aug. 7 and its aftermath still resonates. Diplo- mats are on the “front line” of interna- tional affairs, where terrorism has now become an established fact of life. Our focus is not on the 1998 bomb- ings’ place in the broader 9/11 and post-9/11 narrative. Nor is it about the pursuit and prosecution of individual terrorists, administrative and com- pensation issues, security policies and practices before or after the incidents or any of the many topics one might expect in a comprehensive history. This collection is personal, and it’s painful. It is not easy reading. After every reflection, take a deep breath, a pause to regroup. I wouldn’t try to read all the reflections in one sitting. But read them we must—to understand, to LETTER FROM THE EDITOR Remembrance, Reflection and Resilience BY SHAWN DORMAN A ugust 7, 1998: It was 3:30 a.m. in Washington, D.C., and I was on the night shift in the State Department Operations Center. Having just started a new assign- ment as a watch officer, I was in training at the editor’s station, working with experienced watch-stander Ray Maxwell to learn the ropes. At about 3:40 a.m., the Watch took a call from John Lange, chargé for Embassy Dar es Salaam, reporting that there had just been a huge explosion at the embassy. As I recall, he told us that he and embassy staff were at that moment climbing over a wall to escape from the embassy grounds. He would report back when they knew more. Within moments, the call came in from Nairobi—the embassy had been bombed. Everyone was in motion. The senior watch officer called Secretary of State Madeleine Albright (in Rome at the time) to alert her to what had happened. A task force was established immedi- ately, and senior State officials started to gather there by about 5:30 a.m. Later that morning, when a clearer picture emerged, Ray drafted the first ALDAC cable informing posts worldwide. What had happened was that at about 10:37 a.m. local time in Kenya and Tanzania, nearly simultaneous bombs went off at U.S. Embassy Nairobi and U.S. Embassy Dar es Salaam. As we would Shawn Dorman is the editor of The Foreign Service Journal. remember, to honor and to learn. While this is a story of horror and loss, it also offers glimmers of hope that come from the strength of those who survived. The authors share what they learned about how to process trauma and how to build resilience. There are common threads in their advice: a strong community is critical for recovery; take care of your people, your family and yourself; never be complacent; listen to your people (and Washington, listen to the field); survivors, seek out mental health sup- port whether you think you need it or not; there is such a thing as second- degree trauma, and helpers can and often do experience PTSD themselves. Know the Ops Center phone number: (202) 647-1512. Following the compilation of current reflections on the East Africa bombings is a selection of excerpts from the FSJ archive. On a less somber note, this issue includes the first “Message from the Military” to the Foreign Service, in which Vice Admiral Fritz Roegge, presi- dent of National Defense University, offers “The View from the Bridge: Sailing in Formation with the State Depart- ment,” a look at cooperation between the War College and the Foreign Service. I regret that we have no Speaking Out in this issue; please share your views in an opinion piece or a letter to the editor. And please share your responses to the East Africa compilation; add to the lessons learned. We look forward to hearing from you. n