The Foreign Service Journal, September 2006

sized the Bush administration’s deter- mination to “play a leadership role internationally in the effort to resolve the situation in Darfur” in mid-May testimony to the House International Relations committee ( http://www. htm ). In a July 25 press release car- ried in the Sudan Tribune , the U.S.- based Africa Action NGO spelled out how Washington can use its leverage ( ) . But whether the U.S. and the inter- national community will continue to bow to national sovereignty and allow Khartoum to implement the peace agreement on its own, or will act based on a “responsibility to protect”—as an International Crisis Group document puts it ( home/index.cfm?id=4269&l=1 ) — remains to be seen. — Eirene Busa, Editorial Intern Rumbling in the Balkans ... Again The Union of Serbia and Monten- egro dissolved on May 21 when, after three shaky years, 55.5 percent of Montenegrins voted in favor of inde- pendence during a referendum. The European Union–brokered federation was the final step in the tumultuous breakup of Yugoslavia that began in the 1990s. Whether Montenegro’s secession sets the stage for stability and rejuvenation in the Balkans, or triggers further unraveling in the region, is the question. A May 30 briefing from the Inter- national Crisis Group opined that Montenegrin independence should “on balance” improve stability in the western Balkans, with the caveat that reactions from Belgrade, the Monten- egrin opposition and within Bosnia could tip the scales in the other direc- tion ( home/index.cfm?id=4144&l=1 ). In a July 25 op-ed in the Wall Street Journal , retired Ambassador Morton Abramowitz and Joe Black, both of the ICG, called on American and Euro- pean officials to demonstrate strong leadership in the Balkans during this uncertain period ( http://www.crisis 1&l=1 ). Some analysts, such as Gordon N. Bardos of the Washington Post , worry that Montenegro’s move to indepen- dence may pose a threat to the Dayton Accords, which have kept the peace in Bosnia since 1995, especially in light of the upcoming decision on Kosovo’s status ( http://www.washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/ 06/23/AR2006062301505.html ). According to a commentary at EU , however, “fears of a domino effect are unwarranted. The political sophistication and patience exhibited by the government in Pod- gorica emphasized that the goal of self-determination can be achieved peacefully” ( 7/21703 ). The new nation is more deter- mined than ever to become a member of NATO and the E.U., but according to European Commissioner for Enlargement Ollie Rehn, “There is no shortcut to Europe.” The E.U. will help Montenegro navigate the mem- bership process, but makes no pro- mises of membership. Economists look forward to a posi- tive effect. Janusz Bugajski, of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, is optimistic that Montene- gro’s independent status will enable both its country and Europe to focus less on security threats and more on economic investment and institutional integration ( mponent/option,com_csis_progj/ta sk,view/id,652 /). Others, such as Marian Tupy of the Cato Institute, consult that Montene- gro can only promote economic stabil- ity if its government makes wise deci- sions ( play.php?pub_id=6404 ). For updated news sources on Montenegro, consult BBC News Online . For Europe’s involvement in Montene- gro, read the European Commission’s “Serbia and Montenegro 2005 Pro- gress Report” at http://www.delscg . uments/documents/2005%20sec_ 1428_final_en_progress_report_s cg.pdf . For details on U.S. policy in the Balkans, click onto http://usinfo. ans.html or read the Congressional Research Service report, “The Future of the Balkans and U.S. Policy Con- cerns,” last updated in January 2006, at 12organization/62663.pdf . — Eirene Busa, Editorial Intern C Y B E R N O T E S 50 Years Ago... The idea of a universal international organization able to resolve political problems and to enforce their resolution has played a great role in this period and is of continuing importance. The U.S. took the initiative in creating the League of Nations, and despite our refusal to participate, the fundamental idea of the League retained an appeal in this country so that the U.S. played a prominent role again in the establishment of the United Nations. — Howard Trivers, “Morality and Foreign Affairs,” reprinted from the Virginia Quarterly Review , FSJ , September 1956. S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 6 / F O R E I G N S E R V I C E J O U R N A L 13