The Foreign Service Journal, November 2006

U.N.’s disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process for the war- ring sides in Mozambique and other missions in the early 1990s has made “DDR” standard for nationbuilding efforts from Liberia to Afghanistan. At the same time, the U.N.’s faulty efforts to reform Haiti’s security sector in the 1990s impressed upon the organiza- tion the need for such reforms to be more comprehensive, involving train- ing and other strong hands-on guidance in policing and justice areas, as well as governance. This was further emphasized in East Timor and Kosovo, with mixed results. It has also become apparent that powerful regional actors, whether Australia in East Timor, the United States in El Salvador, or the European Union in the Balkans, can have a positive impact when harnessed to the U.N.’s skilled mediation and development teams. But hampering such efforts is impatience on the part of the Security Council, whether in East Timor or in Haiti, where the Council this year decided to shorten the mandate of the U.N. peacebuild- ing mission. In both cases, successful elections seemed to put the countries on the fast track toward a reduction in U.N. involvement. That both coun- tries remain among the poorest in the world, with recent violent pasts, should be reason enough for more sus- tained Security Council commitment. Elections and political reforms are rightly ingrained in U.N. post-conflict planning, but new thinking is still re- quired about the resources needed to sustain and stabilize even the smallest of countries long after the ballots are counted. As East Timor warily prepares for new elections and the U.N. readies a new peacekeeping mission, it is clearer than ever that the savings from the premature pullout were inconsequential. F O C U S N O V E M B E R 2 0 0 6 / F O R E I G N S E R V I C E J O U R N A L 29 Speedy economic revitalization in post-conflict zones remains a problem for international bodies. * per night, single or double occupancy subject to availability Y our search is over, choose a hotel where the federal per diem rate is available year-round. * Luxurious Suites All rooms with full size kitchen & stove tops Fitness center Complimentary in-room coffee Full service restaurant Parking available Across fromMain State White House, The Mall, and Metro Foggy Bottom station (blue & orange lines) within walking distance Accommodations State Plaza Hotel 2117 E. St. NW Washington, DC 20037 Telephone: (800) 424-2859 (202) 861-8200 Parking Available Rated 1 / 2 by AAA E-mail: