The Foreign Service Journal, November 2011

14 F O R E I G N S E R V I C E J O U R N A L / N O V E M B E R 2 0 1 1 tural production meant to diversify the economy, which currently relies almost entirely on oil revenues. According to the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 97.8 percent of the new na- tion’s revenue in 2010 came from oil —while 78 percent of households de- pend on crop farming or animal hus- bandry as their primary source of income ( ). Also active in providing construc- tive aid has been USAID ( www. ). USAID Mission Direc- tor Kevin Mullay outlined the chal- lenges facing South Sudan in an August-September update: infrastruc- ture, human capital, management in the petroleum sector, government communication with citizens and a transitional constitution. The agency’s personnel are concen- trated in Akobo (Jonglei state), where cattle raiding and conflict over natural resources has been commonplace since the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed in 2005. Its peace and se- curity program focuses on youth de- velopment, attempting to deter them from criminal or violent activities. Other programs run by USAID focus on democracy and governance, invest- ing in people, economic growth and humanitarian assistance. South Sudan has succeeded in ac- quiring membership to international organizations such as the United Na- tions (becoming the 194th General Assembly member) and the African Union, but has yet to establish a per- manent capital. Currently located in Juba, the seat of governance is expected to be moved in the next several years to the planned city of Ramciel, in the Lakes state of the Greater Bahr el Ghazal re- gion ( . The move is deemed essential be- cause of Juba’s lack of centrality, poor infrastructure and urban overgrowth. By contrast, Ramciel is located at the geographic center of South Sudan. It is hoped that the move, in which an entire city will need to be built from essentially nothing, will stimulate much-needed investment in the South Sudan economy. President Salva Kiir Mayardit was simultaneously vice president of Sudan and president of Southern Sudan from 2005 until South Sudan’s independence. Since then, he has es- tablished a South Sudan Disarma- ment, Demobilization and Reinte- gration Commission to reintegrate the estimated 90,000 combatants as- sociated with the Sudan People’s Lib- eration Army and Sudanese Armed Forces ( ) ba ck into civilian society. That process will unfold in three phases: dispossession of weapons, discharge from the military and rein- tegration into civilian life. As of Au- gust, about 12,525 of the 90,000 former rebels had been demobilized. The Republic of South Sudan cur- rently has embassies in Kenya, Egypt, South Africa, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Cana- da, Belgium and the United Kingdom, in addition toWashington, D.C. (www. . T he U.S. embassy in South Sudan is located in Juba ( ), although the ambassador position is currently vacant. For more information on the world’s newest country, please consult the CIA World Factbook ( ) or BBC’s South Sudan profile ( www. ). Th e Department of State Background Notes page for South Sudan was added to the site on Sept. 22 ( ). —Laura Pettinelli, Editorial Intern C Y B E R N O T E S WWW.AFSA.ORG When contacting an advertiser, kindly mention the Foreign Service Journal. AFSA Insurance Plans AFSA FAD AFSPA AKA Hotel residences Blue Cross® Blue Shield® Clements International SDFCU WJD Woodlands