Assistant Secretaries: Foreign Service Career vs Other Appointments

Assistant Secretaries of State Statistics from 1975 to the Present Day

Updated November 13, 2023

Total Positions: 28

(names in italic font indicate a nominee for the position)

"Other" indicates a nominee from outside the career Foreign Service (i.e. political appointees, career members of the Civil Service, etc.)

Post Name Career FS/Other Dates of Service
Career: 69.2%
Other: 30.8%
John M. Thomas Career FS 1973-1979
Thomas M. Tracy Career FS 1979-1983
Robert E. Lamb Career FS 1983-1985
Donald J. Bouchard Career FS 1985-1987
Sheldon J. Krys Career FS 1988-1989
Arthur W. Fort Other 1989-1993
Patrick F. Kennedy Career FS 1993-2001
William A. Eaton Career FS 2001-2005
Rajkumar Chellerai Other 2006-2009
Joyce A. Barr Career FS 2011-2017
Nicole Nason Other 2018-2019
Carrie Beth Cabelka Other 2020-2021
Alaina Teplitz Career FS 2021-
African Affairs
Career: 57.1%
Other: 42.9%
Donald B. Easum Career FS 1974-1975
Nathaniel Davis Career FS 1975
William E. Schaufele Jr. Career FS 1975-1977
Richard M. Moose Other 1977-1981
Chester A. Crocker Other 1981-1989
Herman J. Cohen Career FS 1989-1993
George E. Moose Career FS 1993-1997
Susan Rice Other 1997-2001
Walter Kansteiner Other 2001-2003
Jendayi E. Frazer Other 2005-2009
Johnnie Carson Career FS 2009-2013
Linda Thomas-Greenfield Career FS 2013-2017
Tibor P. Nagy, Jr. Other * 2018-2021
Mary Catherine Phee Career FS 2021-
Arms Control, Deterrence, and Stability


Career: 0.0%
Other: 100.0%
Paula DeSutter Other 2002-2009
Rose Gottemoeller Other 2009-2013
Frank A. Rose Other 2014-2017
Yleem D.S. Poblete Other 2018-2019
Mallory A. Stewart Other 2022-
Conflict & Stabilization Operations
Career: 25.0%
Other: 75.0%
Rick Barton Other 2012-2014
David M. Robinson Career 2015-2017
Denise Natali Other 2018-2021
Anne Witkowsky Other 2021-
Consular Affairs
Career: 63.6%
Other: 36.4%
Leonard F. Walentynowicz Other 1974-1977
Barbara Mae Watson Other 1977
Diego Cortes Asencio Career FS 1980-1983
Joan M. Clark Career FS 1983-1989
Elizabeth M. Tamposi Other 1989-1992
Mary A. Ryan Career FS 1993-2002
Maura A. Harty Career FS 2002-2008
Janice L. Jacobs Career FS 2008-2014
Michele Thoren Bond Career FS 2015-2017
Carl Risch Other 2017-2021
Rena Bitter Career FS 2021-
Coordinators for Counterterrorism
Career: 55.6%
Other: 44.4%
Louis D. Heck Career FS 1976-1977
Heyward Isham Career FS 1977-1978
Anthony C.E. Quainton Career FS 1978-1981
Robert M. Sayre Career FS 1982-1984
Robert B. Oakley Career FS 1984-1986
L. Paul Bremer III Career FS 1986-1989
Morris D. Busby Other 1989-1991
Albert P. Burleigh Career FS 1991-1992
Philip C. Wilcox Jr. Career FS 1994-1997
Christopher W.S. Ross Career FS 1998
Michael E. Sheehan Other 1999-2000
Francis X. Taylor Other 2001-2002
J. Cofer Black Other 2002-2004
Henry Crumpton Other 2005-2007
Dell L. Dailey Other 2007-2009
Daniel Benjamin Other 2009-2013
Tina S. Kaidanow Career FS 2014-2016
Nathan Alexander Sales Other 2017-2021
Democracy, Human Rights & Labor
Career: 7.7%
Other: 92.3%
James M. Wilson Jr. Career FS 1976-1977
Patricia M. Derian Other 1977-1981
Elliott Abrams Other 1981-1985
Richard Schifter Other 1985-1992
Patricia D. Dennis Other 1992-1993
John H.F. Shattuck Other 1993-1998
Harold H. Koh Other 1998-2001
Lorne W. Craner Other 2001-2005
Barry F. Lowenkron Other 2005-2007
David J. Kramer Other 2008-2009
Michael H. Posner Other 2009-2013
Tom Malinowski Other 2014-2017
Robert A. Destro Other 2019-2021
Diplomatic Security
Career: 54.5%
Other: 45.5%
Robert E. Lamb Career FS 1987-1989
Sheldon J. Krys Career FS 1989-1992
Anthony C.E. Quainton Career FS 1992-1995
Eric J. Boswell Career FS 1995-1998
David G. Carpenter Other 1998-2002
Francis X. Taylor Other 2002-2005
Richard J. Griffin Other 2005-2007
Eric J. Boswell Career FS 2008-2012
Gregory B. Starr Career FS 2013-2017
Michael Evanoff Other 2017-2020
Gentry Smith Other 2021-
Directors General of the Foreign Service
Career: 100.0%
Other: 0.0%
Caroline C. Laise Career FS 1975-1979
Harry G. Barnes Jr. Career FS 1977-1981
Joan M. Clark Career FS 1981-1983
Alfred L Atherton Jr. Career FS 1983-1984
George S. Vest Career FS 1985-1989
Edward J. Perkins Career FS 1989-1992
Genta H. Holmes Career FS 1992-1995
Anthony C.E. Quainton Career FS 1995-1997
Edward W. Gnehm Jr. Career FS 1997-2000
Marc I. Grossman Career FS 2000-2001
Ruth A. Davis Career FS 2001-2003
W. Robert Pearson Career FS 2003-2006
George M. Staples Career FS 2006-2007
Harry K. Thomas Jr. Career FS 2007-2009
Nancy Jo Powell Career FS 2009-2012
Linda Thomas-Greenfield Career FS 2012-2013
Arnold A. Chacon Career FS 2014-2017
Carol Z. Perez Career FS 2019-
East Asian & Pacific Affairs
Career: 43.8%
Other: 56.2%
Philip C. Habib Career FS 1974-1976
Arthur W. Hummel Jr. Career FS 1976-1977
Richard Holbrooke Other 1977-1981
John H. Holdridge Career FS 1981
Paul D. Wolfowitz Other 1982-1986
Gaston J. Sigur Jr. Other 1986-1989
Richard H. Solomon Other 1989-1992
William Clark Jr. Career FS 1992-1993
Winston Lord Other 1993-1997
Stanley O. Roth Other 1997-2001
James A. Kelly Other 2001-2005
Christopher R. Hill Career FS 2005-2009
Kurt M. Campbell Other 2009-2013
Danny Russel Career FS 2013-2017
David Stilwell Other 2019-2021
Daniel Kritenbrink Career FS 2021-
Economic & Business Affairs
Career: 31.2%
Other: 68.8%
Thomas O. Enders Career FS 1974-1975
Joseph A. Greenwald Career FS 1976
Julius L. Katz Other 1976-1979
Deane R. Hinton Career FS 1979-1981
Robert D. Hormats Other 1981-1982
Richard T. McCormack Other 1983-1985
Douglas W. McGinn Other 1985-1987
Eugene J. McAllister Other 1988-1992
Daniel K. Tarullo Other 1993-1996
Alan P. Larson Career FS 1996-1999
Earl Anthony Wayne Career FS 2000-2006
Daniel S. Sullivan Other 2006-2009
Jose W. Fernandez Other 2009-2013
Charles Rivkin Other 2014-2017
Manisha Singh Other 2017-2021
Ramin Toloui Other 2021-
Educational & Cultural Affairs
Career: 0.0%
Other: 100.0%
John Richardson Jr. Other 1969-1977
Joseph D. Duffey Other 1977-1978
Alice S. Ilchman Other 1978
William B. Bader Other 1999-2001
Patricia D. Harrison Other 2001-2005
Dina H. Powell Other 2005-2007
Goli Ameri Other 2008-2010
Judith A. Stewart-Stock Other 2010-2013
Evan Ryan Other 2013-2017
Marie Royce Other 2018-2021
Lee Satterfield Other 2021-
Energy Resources
Career: 0.0%
Other: 100.0%
Francis Fannon Other 2018-2021
European & Eurasian Affairs
Career: 66.7%
Other: 33.3%
Arthur A. Hartman Career FS 1973-1977
George S. Vest Career FS 1977-1981
Lawrence S. Eagleburger Career FS 1981-1982
Richard R. Burt Other 1983-1985
Rozanne L. Ridgway Career FS 1985-1989
Raymond G.H. Seitz Career FS 1989-1991
Thomas M.T. Niles Career FS 1991-1993
Stephen A. Oxman Other 1993-1994
Richard Holbrooke Other 1994-1996
John C. Kornblum Career FS 1996-1997
Marc I. Grossman Career FS 1997-2000
James F. Dobbins Career FS 2000-2001
A. Elizabeth Jones Career FS 2001-2005
Daniel Fried Career FS 2005-2009
Philip H. Gordon Other 2009-2013
Victoria Nuland Career FS 2013-2017
A. Wess Mitchell Other 2017-2019
Karen Donfried Other 2021-2023
Global Public Affairs (Public Affairs prior to 2019)
Career: 31.6%
Other: 68.4%
John E. Reinhardt Career FS 1975-1977
W. Hodding Carter III Other 1977-1980
William J. Dyess Career FS 1980-1981
Dean E. Fischer Other 1981-1982
R. John Hughes Other 1982-1985
Bernard Kalb Other 1985-1986
Charles E. Redman Career FS 1987-1989
Margaret D. Tutwiler Other 1989-1992
Thomas E. Donilon Other 1993-1996
James P. Rubin Other 1997-2000
Richard A. Boucher Career FS 2000-2005
Sean McCormack Career FS 2005-2009
Philip J. Crowley Other 2009-2012
Michael Hammer Career FS 2012-2013
Douglas Frantz Other 2013-2015
John Kirby Other 2015-2017
Michelle Giuda Other 2018-2020
Aaron Ringel Other 2020-2021
Elizabeth Allen Other 2021-2023
Intelligence & Research
Career: 53.3%
Other: 46.7%
Harold H. Saunders Career FS 1975-1978
William G. Bowdler Career FS 1978-1979
Ronald I. Spiers Career FS 1980-1981
Hugh Montgomery Other 1981-1985
Morton I. Abramowitz Career FS 1985-1989
Douglas P. Mulholland Other 1989-1993
Toby T. Gati Other 1993-1997
Phyllis E. Oakley Career FS 1997-1999
J. Stapleton Roy Career FS 1999-2001
Carl W. Ford Other 2001-2003
Randall M. Fort Other 2006-2009
Philip S. Goldberg Career FS 2010-2013
Daniel Bennett Smith Career FS 2014-2018
Ellen McCarthy Other 2019-2021
Brett Holmgren Other 2021-
International Narcotics & Law Enforcement Affairs
Career: 46.2%
Other: 53.8%
K. Mathea Falco Other 1979-1981
Dominic L. DiCarlo Other 1981-1984
Jon R. Thomas Other 1984-1986
Ann B. Wroblewski Other 1986-1989
Melvyn Levitsky Career FS 1989-1993
Robert S. Gelbard Career FS 1993-1997
Rand Beers Other 1998-2002
Robert B. Charles Other 2003-2005
Anne W. Patterson Career FS 2005-2007
David T. Johnson Career FS 2007-2010
William Brownfield Career FS 2011-2018
Kirsten Dawn Madison Other 2018-2021
Todd Robinson Career FS 2021-
International Organization Affairs
Career: 23.5%
Other: 76.5%
Samuel W. Lewis Career FS 1975-1977
Charles W. Mayes Other 1977-1980
Richard L. McCall Jr. Other 1980-1981
Elliott Abrams Other 1981
Gregory J. Newell Other 1982-1985
Alan L. Keyes Other 1985-1987
Richard S. Williamson Other 1988-1989
John R. Bolton Other 1989-1993
Douglas J. Bennet Jr. Other 1993-1995
Princeton N. Lyman Career FS 1997-1998
C. David Welch Career FS 1998-2005
Kristen Silverberg Other 2005-2008
Brian H. Hook Other 2008-2009
Esther Brimmer Other 2009-2013
Bathsheba N. Crocker Other 2014-2017
Kevin Moley Other 2018-2019
Michele Sison Career FS 2021-
International Security & Nonproliferation
Career: 25.0%
Other: 75.0%
John Rood Other 2007-2009
Thomas Countryman Career FS 2011-2017
Christopher Ashley Ford Other 2017-2021
C.S. Eliot Kang Other (Civil Service) 2022-
Legal Advisers
Career: 0.0%
Other: 100.0%
Monroe Leigh Other 1974-1977
Herbert J. Hansell Other 1977-1979
Roberts B. Owen Other 1979-1981
Davis R. Robinson Other 1981-1985
Abraham D. Sofaer Other 1985-1990
Edwin D. Williamson Other 1990-1993
Conrad K. Harper Other 1993-1996
David Andrews Other 1997-2000
William H. Taft IV Other 2001-2005
John B. Bellinger III Other 2005-2009
Harold H. Koh Other 2009-2013
Brian James Egan Other 2016-2017
Jennifer Gillian Newstead Other 2017-2019
Legislative Affairs
Career: 10.5%
Other: 89.5%
Robert J. McCloskey Career FS 1975-1976
Douglas J. Bennet Jr. Other 1977-1979
John Brian Atwood Other 1979-1981
Richard Fairbanks Other 1981-1982
Powell A. Moore Other 1982-1983
William T. Bennett Jr. Career FS 1983-1985
William L. Ball III Other 1985-1986
J. Edward Fox Other 1986-1989
Janet G. Mullins Other 1989-1992
Wendy R. Sherman Other 1993-1996
Barbara M. Larkin Other 1996-2001
Paul V. Kelly Other 2001-2005
Jeffrey T. Bergner Other 2005-2008
Matthew A. Reynolds Other 2008-2009
Richard R. Verma Other 2009-2011
David S. Adams Other 2011-2013
Julia Frifield Other 2013-2017
Mary Kirtley Waters Other 2017-2018
Mary Elizabeth Taylor Other 2018-2020
Near Eastern Affairs
Career: 85.7%
Other: 14.3%
Alfred L. Atherton Jr. Career FS 1974-1978
Henry H. Saunders Career FS 1978-1981
Nicholas A. Veliotes Career FS 1981-1983
Richard W. Murphy Career FS 1983-1989
John H. Kelly Career FS 1989-1991
Edward P. Djerejian Career FS 1991-1993
Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. Career FS 1994-1997
Martin S. Indyk Other 1997-1999
Edward S. Walker Jr. Career FS 1999-2001
William J. Burns Career FS 2001-2005
C. David Welch Career FS 2005-2009
Jeffrey D. Feltman Career FS 2009-2012
Anne W. Patterson Career FS 2013-2017
David Schenker Other 2019-2021
Oceans & International Environmental & Scientific Affairs
Career: 26.7%
Other: 73.3%
Dixy Lee Ray Other 1975
Frederick Irving Career FS 1976-1977
Patsy T. Mink Other 1977-1978
Thomas R. Pickering Career FS 1978-1981
James L. Malone Other 1981-1985
John D. Negroponte Career FS 1985-1987
Frederick M. Bernthal Other 1988-1990
E.U. Curtis Bohlen Other 1990-1992
Elinor G. Constable Career FS 1993-1995
Eileen B. Claussen Other 1996-1997
David B. Sandalow Other 1999-2001
John F. Turner Other 2001-2005
Claudia A. McMurray Other 2006-2009
Kerri-Ann Jones Other 2009-2014
Monica Medina Other 2021-
Political-Military Affairs
Career: 25.0%
Other: 75.0%
Ronald Ian Spiers Career FS 1969-1973
Seymour Weiss Other 1973-1974
George S. Vest Career FS 1974-1977
Leslie H. Gelb Other 1977-1979
Reginald Bartholomew Career FS 1979-1981
Richard R. Burt Other 1981-1982
Jonathan T. Howe Other 1982-1984
John T. Chain Jr. Other 1984-1985
Henry A. Holmes Career FS 1985-1989
Richard A. Clarke Other 1989-1992
Robert L. Gallucci Other 1992-1994
Thomas E. McNamara Career FS 1994-1998
Eric D. Newsom Other 1998-2000
Lincoln P. Bloomfield Other 2001-2005
John Hillen Other 2005-2008
Mark Kimmitt Other 2008-2009
Andrew J. Shapiro Other 2009-2013
Puneet Talwar Other 2014-2015
R. Clarke Cooper Other 2019-2021
Jessica Lewis Other 2021-
Population, Refugees & Migration
Career: 42.9%
Other: 57.1%
John A. Baker Jr. Career FS 1979-1980
Frank E. Loy Other 1980-1981
Richard D. Vine Career FS 1982
James N. Purcell Jr. Other 1983-1986
Jonathan Moore Other 1987-1989
Princeton N. Lyman Career FS 1989-1992
Warren Zimmermann Career FS 1992-1994
Phyllis E. Oakley Career FS 1994-1997
Julia V. Taft Other 1997-2001
Arthur E. Dewey Other 2002-2005
Ellen R. Sauerbrey Other 2006-2007
Eric P. Schwartz Other 2009-2012
Anne C. Richard Other 2012-2017
Julieta Valls Noyes Career 2022-
Resource Management
Career: 0.0%
Other: 100.0%
Christopher C. Burnham Other 2002-2005
Bradford R. Higgins Other 2006-2009
South & Central Asian Affairs
Career: 57.1%
Other: 42.9%
Robin L. Raphel Career FS 1993-1997
Karl F. Inderfurth Other 1997-2001
Christina B. Rocca Other 2001-2006
Richard A. Boucher Career FS 2006-2009
Robert O. Blake Jr. Career FS 2009-2013
Nisha Biswal Desai Other 2013-2017
Donald Lu Career FS 2021-
Western Hemisphere Affairs
Career: 52.6%
Other: 47.4%
William D. Rogers Other 1974-1976
Harry W. Shlaudeman Career FS 1976-1977
Terence A. Todman Career FS 1977-1978
Viron P. Vaky Career FS 1978-1979
William G. Bowdler Career FS 1979-1981
Thomas O. Enders Career FS 1981-1983
Langhorne A. Motley Other 1983-1985
Elliott Abrams Other 1985-1989
Bernard W. Aronson Other 1989-1993
Alexander F. Watson Career FS 1993-1996
Jeffrey S. Davidow Career FS 1996-2000
Peter F. Romero Career FS 2000-2001
Otto J. Reich Other 2002
Roger F. Noriega Other 2003-2005
Thomas A. Shannon Jr. Career FS 2005-2009
Arturo Valenzuela Other 2009-2012
Roberta Jacobson Other 2012-2016
Kimberly Breier Other 2018-2019
Brian Nichols Career FS 2021-

* retired FS

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